Virginia removed from its capitol the busts and a statue honoring Confederate generals and officials, including a bronze statue of Gen. Robert E. Lee. Finally, the historian who corrected the mistakes in the quartered coat of arms on the Great Seal and was the first to have a flag manufactured based on those arms, Clayton Coleman Hall, served in the Fifth Regiment. The field of this new flag consisted entirely of the quartered arms of the Calvert and Crosland families, with the Calvert paly of six taking up the first and fourth quarters of the flag and the Crosland cross bottony (in red and white) taking up the second and third quarters (i.e. Unofficial state flag of Maryland used by secessionists during American Civil War. “Maryland, My Maryland,” set to the traditional seasonal tune of “O, Tannenbaum,” was written as a poem in 1861 by James Ryder Randall and adopted as the state song in 1939. Then, the controversy died as quickly as it had arisen. [vii]  Another early example is from a map made in 1671 by John Ogilby (Figure 2). Like many non-natives, he also admits to some bewilderment at Marylanders’ unbridled love for their flag. 1st Maryland Artillery, CSA (a.k.a. You might call it propaganda, state lies, fraud, illusions or delusions. Everyone interested in the overall design of the Constitution ratified by the several States in 1788 should read this book. The cross in the Crossland arms ends in demi-fleurs-de-lis and is properly a cross flory; the cross in the Maryland flag terminates in buttons, and in … Then, in 1622, Sir Richard St. George (Norroy King of Arms) granted him an exemplification for a heraldic coat of arms, of which the shield was a “paly of six” in gold and black (the tinctures of “or” and “sable” in heraldry). [xxxix] The picture of the Second Maryland, C.S.A. Nonetheless, the scant record which does exist, such as Heaman’s Narrative and other primary sources of the colonial period, points to the use of a flag which was black and gold (no mention of red and white), the colors of the Calvert family only. The bigger question may be whether Maryland should fly any flag paying homage to the Calvert family—either black and gold or red and white. He grew up on a First Nation reservation in Canada. Judged by Clyde Wilson to be the "standard" on Madison for sometime. Smith shows how Evangelical revivalism in the colonial South Carolina low country had origins in Roman Catholic mysticism, Huguenot Calvinists and German pietism. Even at the time the legislators were claiming to bring together opposing sides of the war (nearly four decades after its conclusion) by formally adopting the flag, attempts were made by state legislators to disenfranchise black voters. Ed Papenfuse, the former Maryland state archivist, believes it’s a mistake passed down through the years before the documentation of the Mynne family crest at George Calvert’s wife’s tomb. [xliii] James Brewer, History of the 175th (Fifth Maryland) (Maryland Historical Society, 1955), 155-157. [xxx] “The Color-Phobia,” The Daily Exchange (Baltimore, Maryland), September 12, 1861, https://www.newspapers.com/image/325557671/. That day the Fifth escorted surviving members of the Maryland Line, who carried with them the “Bucktail” flag of the First Maryland, C.S.A. In December 1885, Hall gave an address concerning the history of the Great Seal to the Maryland Historical Society. The poor showing of the only other militia regiment in Maryland, the Sixth, ended that regiment’s career, leaving the Fifth as Maryland’s only regiment for time. Nevertheless, the earliest known and incontrovertible account of the flag being used in public was during a dedication at Gettysburg in honor of Maryland Union soldiers on October 25, 1888. While the historic record prior to the War Between the States points to the recognition of the Calvert family colors as Maryland’s unofficial flag, the state government officially adopted the Crosland colors along with the Calvert colors as the state flag in 1904. It became the focal point of an ornate iron gateway in front of the Maryland Line Confederate Soldiers’ Home in Pikesville. Moreover, while Maryland Confederates may not have worn red and white for the exact same reason, they did wear those colors as a universal symbol of loyalty to the Confederacy. Though not pervasive, these flags are available to the public through retailers on the internet). [xxxiii], Another compelling account is that of Fannie Beers, a northern woman who married Jonathan Sturges Beers of Alabama shortly before the war and served as a devoted nurse for the Confederate Army. Nonetheless, it hardly seems plausible that it was done in reaction against black and golf of the Calvert arms. ... voted to remove a plaque that honored the Civil War’s Union and Confederate soldiers and showed the U.S. flag and Confederate flag … For instance, The Dallas Daily Herald stated on July 26, 1862: A daughter of Capt. "Maryland, My Maryland," set to the traditional seasonal tune of "O, Tannenbaum," was written as a poem in 1861 by James Ryder Randall and adopted as the state song in 1939. Unfortunately, in the last few years, Maryland’s flag has come under scrutiny for its association with the Confederacy. Participating at this event were the Fifth Regiment and other units of the First Brigade of the Maryland militia. See also Manakee and Whiteford, 5. [xxvii] “152nd anniversary of the Star of the West,” The Citadel, February 2, 2018 http://www.citadel.edu/root/star-ofthe-west-152. Impression of this seal, which dates back to 1648, has been preserved on numerous documents from the proprietary era. There is solid evidence, again, in the Baltimore Sun and Baltimore American newspapers, that the Veteran Corps of the Fifth Regiment carried the flag during its first parade as an organized and uniformed body on May 10, 1889. If you're looking for a Confederate flag for sale look no further. It could hardly be expected, then, that Marylanders would have exact knowledge of the Crosland family colors, so as to universally wear red and white as symbol in reference to them. A quick internet search of news articles on Maryland’s flag validates this threat. Confederate Flags are a great way to show your neighbors what you and your family love and support. [lii]  In its place, a new flag arose, gifted to the Fifth Regiment by its own Veteran Corps. We carry the best quality Rebel flags at the best price. Frequently, these soldiers wore ornamental crosses in the bottony style, either made of silver (or silver-plated brass) of about one inch by one inch, as personal identifications and an homage to their beloved state (Figure 7). [liv] “History of the Maryland Flag.”  The only book found for this article which contain Mayer’s sketches is a reprint, Celebration of the 150th Anniversary of the Settlement of Baltimore (Baltimore: 1881) https://ia802607.us.archive.org/8/items/1730memorialvolu00balt/1730memorialvolu00balt_bw.pdf. See also Coakley, 261-262. So it may have just been a logical response by Confederates to co-opt the other half of the founding family of Maryland’s coat of arms. Pins in the cross bottony shape were worn on uniforms, and the headquarters flag of the Maryland-born Confederate general Bradley T. Johnson was a red cross bottony on a white field… As the slow process of reconciliation took place in post-Civil War Maryland, a new symbol emerged. The passage of time had gradually diminished the passions of former Rebels and Yankees, permitting them to work together once again. Sisco, with the compliments of C.C.H.”  Charles and John Sisco were owners of an old flag-making business in Baltimore. “Bucktail Flag”) comes from  “Straddling Secession: Thomas Holliday Hicks and the Beginning of the Civil War in Maryland,” Maryland State Archives Museum Online, accessed January 26, 2018,  http://msa.maryland.gov/msa/educ/exhibits/hicks/html/case6.html. 1: James Madison, Not the Father of the Constitution, Nullification, A Constitutional History, 1776-1833. As I understood it, this flag was identical to the current state flag, with the exception that the quarters were reversed -- Confederate veterans placed the Crossland arms in the 1st and 4th quarters, hoist to the left, with Calvert in 2nd and 3rd. Certainly, the creation of the state flag was not an effort to repair the harm of two and a half centuries of slavery in Maryland to African Americans. A readable, comprehensive treatment of the constitutionality of State interposition and nullification. One last primary source from Baltimore is of invaluable note. [xviii] Bradley T. Johnson, Confederate Military History, 2 (Atlanta: Confederate Publishing Company, 1899) http://www.2ndmarylandcod.com/MEMBERSHIP/COMPANY-D/resource-center/library/confederate-military-histor.pdf 19-20. This is a list of Civil War regiments from Maryland which fought in the Confederate States Army. See also The Fifth Regiment, 1867-1899, 140-141. [xxi], While this argument has some merit, there are also significant problems with it, some of which are immediately noticeable for anyone that examines the primary sources and other historical authorities. If they become a rallying point for white supremacists or the KKK, then there will be conflict and pushback. The only perceivable sketch of the quartered Calvert and Crosland arms, in this reprint, are on a picture of the Great Seal. Writing several decades after the war, as a contributor to the twelve-volume set entitled Confederate Military History, Johnson gave a clear indication of what most Maryland citizens likely considered their state’s unofficial flag, on the eve of the riots in Baltimore: On the night of April 18, 1861, Maryland was standing alert, braced up, ready to charge at the word. However, it originally was part of the symbol of the founding family of Maryland. [xlv], Throughout its existence during the 19th century and beyond, the Fifth prided itself on being the best maintained and disciplined militia of Maryland and one of the best in the entire country. [xlvii] Brewer, 159-166. A collection of this prize winning poet’s work set in his home region of rural Louisiana, a place which views the world from a conservative, southern agrarian perspective. 2 (June 1909): 148, http://www.mdhs.org/. Regardless, it seems more likely that credit for the existence of the flag is owed to Clayton Coleman Hall. The Times-Democrat of New Orleans reported in January of 1866 that in Grayson and Floyd counties, Virginia, “There is no military authority. Even acknowledgment in the accomplishments of those men once universally and unequivocally admired by all Americans, such as Washington, Jefferson, and Lee, now brings the occasional sneer or mark of condemnation from “polite” society. According to the newspaper, “all the rebel soldiers and many others who took part in the demonstration wore the red, white and red badges.”[xxxvii]. mentioned above; for both flags, in the quartered Crosland sections of the seal, the colors are red and blue.[xxvi]. Yet, it was the Fifth Regiment and its Veteran Corps, reorganized and founded, respectively, by former Confederate soldiers, which first adopted and popularized the flag. Manakee and Whiteford states that in 1888 he was a major and quartermaster. Lawmakers have tried to replace it since 1974. Beauregard and Joseph E. Johnston approved Ms. Jones’s flag, sewing circles of more than four hundred women in Richmond sewed 120 flags made from Ms. Jones’s original design. The Enduring Relevance of Robert E. Lee: The Ideological Warfare Underpinning the American Civil War. [xlvii], Thus, the members of the reconstituted Fifth honored their defeat in the war by becoming unequivocally loyal to the United States. 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